Types of drinking Water, each with its own definition.
Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water.
Water that is not potable can be made potable by distillation (heating it until it becomes water vapor, and then capturing the vapor without any of the impurities it leaves behind), or by other methods (chemical or heat treatment that kills bacteria).
Sometimes the term safe water is applied to potable water of a lower quality threshold (i.e., it is used effectively for nutrition in humans that have weak access to water cleaning processes, and does more good than harm).
Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water, or "safe for bathing".
Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water, and 1-2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water).
Drinking water is obtained from an approved source. It has been filtered (e.g. with activated carbon or particulate) and has been treated with ozone or an equivalent disinfection process. Usually, spring waters with Total Dissolved Solids between 50 mg/liter and 500 mg/liter are commonly known as Drinking Waters.
Water obtained from an underground spring or well. It may not come from a municipal or public water source. It is not blended with other water and no dissolved solids have been added or removed. Disinfection and filtration may be used.
The FDA regulates Spring Water as follows: Spring Water must be derived from an underground formation, from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth. No particular physical/chemical properties are required other than those normally applied for drinking water. Mineral Water
Mineral water has a long association with medicinal benefits--and it can provide minerals that people need--but there are no scientific studies establishing that routinely consuming mineral water improves your health. The FDA, in fact, forbids mineral waters in the United States from making any health claims.
The FDA regulates Mineral Water as follows: Mineral Water is Spring Water that contains at least 250 mg/liter (or 250 parts per million) of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). This property must be verified through a lab test whereby a liter of water, evaporated at 180 degrees C, should leave a residue of minerals and salts. Up to 249 mg/liter it is classified as
'Spring Water'. From 250 to 500 mg/liter, it is considered 'Low Mineral Content' or Light Mineral Water and, above 500 mg/liter, normal or High Mineral Content.
Usually, only waters above 1000 mg/l are called 'Mineral - High Mineral Content'. Note: this contrasts to the European definition, where all Natural Spring Waters with a TDS of 0 to 500 mg/liter are considered Mineral with Low Mineral Content (or just mineral waters).
Water that is bottled from a hole drilled, bored or otherwise constructed in the ground which taps the water of an aquifier.
Purified water is bottled water that has been purified by means of distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes.
• Distillation: The water is heated until it vaporizes. After condensing it is free of any dissolved minerals.
• Deionization: Water is passed through resins which remove most of the dissolved minerals.
• Reverse Osmosis: High pressure forces the water through membranes which remove about 90% of dissolved solubles.
Club Soda and Seltzer Water
They are considered soft drinks, not bottled water.
Some sports drinks don't hydrate better than water, but you are more likely to drink larger volumes, which leads to better hydration. The typical sweet-tart taste combination doesn't quench thirst, so you will keep drinking a sports drink long after water has lost its appeal. An attractive array of colors and flavors are available. You can get a carbohydrate boost from sports drinks, in addition to electrolytes which may be lost from perspiration, but these drinks tend to offer lower calories than juice or soft drinks.
Juice may be nutritious, but it isn't the best choice for hydration. The fructose, or fruit sugar, reduces the rate of water absorption so cells don't get hydrated very quickly. Juice is a food in its own right and it's uncommon for a person to drink sufficient quantities to keep hydrated. Juice has carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes, but it isn't a great thirst quencher. Carbonated Soft Drinks
When you get right down to it, the colas and uncolas of the world aren't good for the body. The acids used to carbonate and flavor these beverages will damage your teeth and may even weaken your bones. Soft drinks are devoid of any real nutritional content. Even so, they taste great! You are more likely to drink what you like, so if you love soft drinks then they might be a good way to hydrate. The carbohydrates will slow your absorption of water, but they will also provide a quick energy boost. In the long run, they aren't good for you, but if hydration is your goal, soft drinks aren't a bad choice. Avoid drinks with lots of sugar or caffeine, which will lessen the speed or degree of hydration.
Coffee and Tea
Coffee and tea can sabotage hydration. Both drinks act as diuretics, meaning they cause your kidneys to pull more water out of your bloodstream even as the digestive system is pulling water into your body. It's a two-steps-forward-one-step-back scenario. If you add milk or sugar, then you reduce the rate of water absorption even further. The bottom line? Save the latte for later.
Alcohol dehydrates your body and therefore not beneficial for the athlete.
"To the people of poor nations, we
pledge to work alongside you to make
your farms flourish and LetCleanWatersFlow, to nourish starved
bodies and feed hungry minds. And to those nations like ours that enjoy
relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to
suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the world's resources
without regard to effect. For the world has changed, and we must change
with it". Source: President Obama, Inaugural Speech, January 20, 2009, Washington, DC, USA.